Hippophile No.57

Table of Contents

第26回学術集会 シンポジウム「日本の馬と祭り -神に願う-」
The 26th Annual Meeting of Japanese Society of Equine Science: Scientific Sessions Symposium "Japan's Horse and Festivals: making Wishes to the Gods"
   末崎 真澄
Equine Resources
 (1) 古代の馬の祭祀について
 Ancient Horse Rituals
   末崎 真澄
 (2) 絵馬と馬頭観音信仰
 Wooden Plaques with Horse Pictures and the Horse-headed Kannon Faith
   末崎 真澄
 (3) 加茂競馬の神事について
 Kamo Race Horse Shinto Rites
   藤木 保誠
 Yasumasa FUJIKI
 (4) 日光東照宮の祭礼と流鏑馬
 Festival and Horseback Archery at Nikko Toshogu Shrine
   篠崎 宏司
 (5) 田立の花馬祭り
 Flower-horse Festival in Tadachi
   高橋 邦衛
Journal of Equine Science Vol.25, No.2, June 2014 和文要約
                  Japanese Summary
The minutes of Editorial Committee
Groups Sponsor・Supporting Member
Hippophile 投稿に関する基準
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Editor's Note

 晴れ渡った日曜の午後,編集子は眼下にこんもりとした林の見下ろせる喫茶店でお茶を飲んでおりました。薫 り高い紅茶に気分は上々,唯一問題があるとすれば傍らにいたのが愚妻だったことぐらいか。窓の外には二羽の 鳥が飛んでいました。よく見ると一方が他方を追いかけて突こうとしています。突かれている方は反撃しようし ますが,別の鳥が飛んできて加勢したりしています。トンビとカラスでしょうか。ほんの20 m 先で繰り広げられ る鳥たちの空中戦はなかなかの見ものでした。そこで,はたと思い出したのが南シナ海でのベトナム船舶と中国 船舶の衝突の映像です。相手が30 回ぶつけてきたとか,50 回ぶつけてきたとか言い合っています。空中と海上 の差こそあれ,なんとなく似てはいないでしょうか。もっともトンビとカラスに限っては,種族をあげての全面 戦争になることは絶対にありえません。
 さて本号は昨年東京大学弥生講堂で開催した学術集会のシンポジウム特集です。「日本の馬と祭り~神に願う」 と題したシンポジウムは,本誌の編集委員でもある末崎真澄氏が中心となって企画されたものです。
 シンポジウムの最初の話題は動物考古学の第一人者,松井章氏の「古代の馬の祭祀について」でした。日本列 島に,現在の在来馬の祖先にあたる馬が持ち込まれたのは,古墳時代中期以降だったと考えられています。シン ポジウムでは,古墳の葬送儀礼で馬が犠牲にされてきたという事実を,氏自身の古墳などの発掘事例を通して, 詳細に説明していただきました。
 次に末崎真澄氏が「絵馬と馬頭観音信仰」という演題で講演をしました。現在,各地の神社に奉納されている 絵馬のルーツは,祭祀のときに生贄として使われた馬だったことが,まず紹介されました。続いて絵馬の図柄を, きれいなスライドで例示していただきました。また馬は苦しみや煩悩を食い尽くす動物と信じられていたことか ら馬頭観音信仰が生まれたという話も興味深いものでした。
 続いて,実際に馬を使った祭りにかかわっている3 人の方が講演をしました。
 賀茂神社の神職である藤木保誠氏は「賀茂競馬の神事について」と題した講演で,平安時代から続く賀茂のく らべうまの神事について,その歴史や現状を詳しくお話しいただきました。
 また日光で流鏑馬に深くかかわっている篠崎宏司氏は「日光東照宮の祭礼と流鏑馬」と題した講演で,日光東 照宮で行われる流鏑馬の流れを解説するとともに,ニュージーランドや英国での公演の様子なども紹介していた だきました。
 さらに長野県の五宮神社の宮司である髙橋邦衛氏は「田立の花馬祭り」と題した講演で,木曽に古くから伝わ る,全国的にも珍しい花馬祭りの歴史や現状について紹介をいただきました。
 さて,平成元年における馬の博物館の調査によると,日本各地の伝統的なお祭りで馬を利用しているものは 500 件あったそうです。それだけ日本人と馬とのつながりは広範で古くから続いてきているものといえるでしょ う。ただし馬の飼育や借用の費用調達が困難などの理由で,その後実馬を使った祭りは減ってきているそうです。 こうした傾向はやはりさびしいものと言わざるを得ません。
              (編集委員長 楠瀬 良)

 One cloudless Sunday afternoon, I was drinking tea in a coffee shop overlooking a thick forest. My mood buoyed by the flavorful tea, my only care in the world was perhaps the fact that the person beside me was my wife. Two birds were flying outside the window. Upon a closer look, I saw that one of the birds was chasing the other and prodding it. The one being prodded was trying to fight back, and another bird came along and started backing it up. It looked like probably black kites and crows. The mid-air battle unfolding just 20m in front of me was quite a sight to see. Just then, what suddenly came to mind was a video of a collision of a Vietnamese ship and a Chinese ship in the South China Sea. Each was arguing that the other had bumped into it 30 times, or 50 times, etc. Despite the obvious differences between the air and sea, they are somewhat similar, don't you think? After all, at least for black kites and crows, there is absolutely no way that an all-out war between the two species would erupt.
 This issue is a feature about the Japanese Society of Equine Science symposium held last year at the University of Tokyo's Yayoi Auditorium. Entitled "Japan's Horses and Festivals: Making Wishes to the Gods," the symposium was put together for the most part by this journal's editorial board member Masumi Suezaki.
 The symposium's first topic was "Ancient Horse Rituals" by Akira Matsui, a foremost authority on animal archaeology. It is believed that it was after the middle part of the Kofun period that the horses that would be the ancestors of the current indigenous horses were brought to the Japanese archipelago. Matsui explained in detail at the symposium the fact that horses were sacrificed in Kofun funeral ceremonies, illustrating his point with cases of excavation from the burial mounds of the masters themselves.
 Next, Masumi Suezaki gave a presentation entitled "Wooden Plaques with Horse Pictures and the Horse-headed Kannon Faith." First, he introduced the fact that the roots of the wooden plaques with horse pictures that are currently dedicated to shrines all over Japan were horses that were used as offerings during rituals. Then he showed beautiful slides of the patterns in such plaques. It was also interesting to hear that the horse-headed kannon faith came about as a result of a belief that horses were an animal that devours suffering and earthly desires.
 After this, three people involved in festivals that actually make use of horses gave presentations.
 Yasumasa Fujiki, a Shinto priest at Kamo Shrine, spoke in detail in a presentation entitled "Kamo Horse Race Shinto Rites" about the history and present-day situation of the "Kamo-no-kurabeuma" horse race Shinto rites that have been taking place since the Heian period.
 And Shinozaki Koji, who is closely involved in horseback archery in Nikko, gave a presentation entitled "Festival and Horseback Archery at Nikko Toshogu Shrine." In it, he described what happens in the horseback archery that takes place at Nikko Toshogu Shrine and also introduced scenes of performances in New Zealand and Great Britain.
 In addition, Kunie Takahashi, the chief priest of Gonomiya Shrine in Nagano prefecture, delivered a presentation entitled "Flower-horse Festival in Tadachi." He introduced the history and present-day situation of the flower-horse festival, which has been passed down from ancient times in the town of Kiso, but is nonetheless rare nationwide.
 According to a study done in 1989 by the Equine Museum of Japan, there were 500 traditional festivals around Japan that make use of horses. So it seems safe to say that the links between Japanese people and horses have continued since the days of old on that wide of a scale. However, for reasons such as difficulties in financing the rearing and borrowing of horses, the number of festivals using horses is apparently decreasing since then. I must say this trend is a sad one.
              (Editor-in-chief Ryo Kusunose)